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ESL forum > Grammar and Linguistics > Grammar competence: Participle    

Grammar competence: Participle



diadora
Turkey

Grammar competence: Participle
 
Dear colleagues, I need your help on the theme "Participle". I am trying to find the answers of the test but I can ´t. Please, prove your option with definite grammar book or link on the net.
The questions are as follows:
 

1. ... in pencil the letter was difficult to read. 

a) Writing b) Having been written c) Having written d) Written

 

2. ... with a new drug he was recovering very quickly.

a) Treating b) Being treated c) Having treated d) Having been treated

 

3. ... what you have done I can ´t believe you.

a) Knowing b) Having known c) Known d) Having been known

 
For me, answers for first question are two : B) and D)   for second question answers are also two B) and D)  for third question answer is A) and B) But one option is true.
 
Please, native speakers help me and provide grammar information.
 
With regards,

30 Jul 2017      



Apodo
Australia

1. B     -   D sounds incomplete -  Because it was written or As it was written in pencil.
2.  D   -    B also sounds incomplete, and it would need to be present tense.
                As he is
being treated with a new drug, he is recovering....
3. A      -  B   Having knowledge of what you have done ....

30 Jul 2017     



Gi2gi
Georgia

In the second sentence I would also consider ( B) (Along with (D) )
 
In this participle clause, (B) ´being treated ´, which I believe is the passive form of the Present Participle, would imply that the patient was still undergoing the treatment. In other words, the actions expressed by the predicate and the Present Participle happen simultaneously.
 
In option (D) ´Having been treated ´, the Passive form of the Perfect Present Participle emphasizes the ´completeness ´ of the action, the patient has finished his course of treatment with the new drug, the action expressed by the participle precedes that of the predicate.
 
PS. I am not a native speaker, and you have excellent explanations from Apodo, but I would love to hear more information as to why the main clause has to be in a present tense if you choose (B)... I think it is not ´abnormal ´ to use past tenses when we have a participle clause with the present participle in its non-perfect form.
 
E.g.
 
Non-perfect forms: 
 
´Being asked the same question over and over again, I was annoyed´
 
 
And the perfect form
 
 
´Having been asked the same question many times, I was annoyed´,
 
both sound ok to my non-native ears, with the difference I underlined above.
 
Would be delighted to hear your expertly opinions.
 
 
Giorgi 
 

30 Jul 2017     



yanogator
United States

Giorgi,
I can see why it sounds OK to a person of your near-native knowledge of English, but it doesn ´t sound quite right to native ears. We just hear a contradiction of the tenses there, especially since continuous tenses (and present participles in general) give an impression of a process going on. Since the process is in the present, the rest also has to be. D is definitely the answer to the second one.
 
Also, all three need commas.
 
Bruce 

31 Jul 2017     



Gi2gi
Georgia

Bruce,
 
Thanks for your answer. This was something I was unaware of until now.
 
So, it ´s clear to me now (and to the OP, probably) that when present participles in their non-perfect forms, both active ( ´doing ´) and passive ( ´being done ´) appear in the adverbial clause, the main clause has to be in the present tense.
 
That ´s why this is a great site. You can always learn something new,  something which no grammar book on earth can offer.
 
Giorgi 

31 Jul 2017     



cunliffe
United Kingdom

Agree with everybody, except 1d - written in pencil.... sounds OK to me. Does need the commas!

31 Jul 2017     



scottmason
Albania

1B
2D
3A 

31 Jul 2017     



redcamarocruiser
United States

1. ... in pencil, the letter was difficult to read.

a) Writing b) Having been written c) Having written d) Written

 
Exercise no. 1 is like this one:
 

Result (in place of words like because or as a result):

I had no time to read my book, having spent so long doing my homework.

Compare: I had no time to read my book because I had spent so long doing my homework.

 

2. ... with a new drug, he was recovering very quickly.

a) Treating b) Being treated c) Having treated d) Having been treated

 
Exercise no. 2 is like this one:
 

Reason (in place of words like so or therefore):

Wanting to speak to him about the contract, I decided to arrange a meeting. 

Compare: I wanted to speak to him about the contract so I decided to arrange a meeting.

If we wish to emphasise that one action was before another then we can use a perfect participle(having + past participle):

Having won the match, Susan jumped for joy.

Having been told the bad news, Susan sat down and cried.


3. ... what you have done, I can ´t believe you.

a) Knowing b) Having known c) Known d) Having been known

 
 Exercise no. 3 is like this one:
 

Reason (in place of words like so or therefore):

Wanting to speak to him about the contract, I decided to arrange a meeting.

Compare: I wanted to speak to him about the contract so I decided to arrange a meeting.

 
Another example using the word knowing appears at http://www.grammaring.com/participle-clauses
 
a reason for the action in the main clause:

Having nothing left to do, Paula went home. (Since Paula had nothing left to do, she went home.)
Knowing a little Russian, I had no difficulty making myself understood. (As I knew a little Russian, I had no difficulty making myself understood.)
Working as a sales rep, I get to travel a lot. (I travel a lot because I work as a sales rep.)

 

31 Jul 2017     



cunliffe
United Kingdom

Good links, Mary, thank you. I ´m still happy with 1d. ´Written in pencil... ´ 
 
´Written ´ in this instance, is acting adjectively. Similar sentences, with a different verb, ´Made of thin cloth, the dress tore easily. ´ ´Told to shut up, the girl left the room in a huff. ´
 
Can ´t find links exactly on this point, but here ´s an interesting one on written as an adjective.
 
Lynne 

1 Aug 2017     



Gi2gi
Georgia

Lynne, I agree that ´written ´ is perfect there, this is virtually what all the grammar books I have come across would advise...
Some refer to this as a ´shortened passive clause ´ " We use the past participle to shorten a passive clause. Example: Blown to the right by the hair-dryer, her hair could easily be cut. Long form: Her hair was blown to the right by the hair-dryer and could easily be cut. "
 
 
I could provide a few more links when I am at home. Posting with a tablet is somewhat awkward. 
 
 
https://english.lingolia.com/en/grammar/sentences/participle

1 Aug 2017     



cunliffe
United Kingdom

Thank you, Giorgi. Yes, it really is a shortened form of a clumsy passive; perfectly fine. Looking at the question again, it says only one option is true. Sometimes, these tests are not 100% accurate... 

1 Aug 2017     

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